Nifi Update Attribute Change Filename

where username is your Windows login name and filename is the file name you choose to that cannot have a locale attribute. It is assumed that you are somewhat comfortable with Docker, and currently this tutorial also assumes that you are using some sort of Unix/Linux, and are comfortable with the command line. Change to behavior of CAPTURE, when capturing all control characters: better handling of CR without LF. Extract attributes, text, and HTML from elements Problem. Command to change metedata (album, title, etc) of. You can't update a file name using the 'Set field in current item'. 3 filename (also called a short filename or SFN) is a filename convention used by old versions of DOS and versions of Microsoft Windows prior to Windows 95 and Windows NT 3. The core attributes for FlowFiles are defined in the org. Timestamp method. The most common attributes you'll see are filename, path and uuid. The files can also be copied or moved to new locations based on information in the files. Hadoop Streaming and custom mapper script: Generate a file containing the full HDFS path of the input files. Application developers often need a command-line utility to allow modification of file version information on existing Windows EXE and DLL, or binary RES files. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. Hello @Arsalan Siddiqi. For example, ${filename} will return the value of the filename attribute. Modifications to a FlowFile are made possible by the ProcessSession. - +The intent of this Developer Guide is to provide the reader with the information needed to understand how Apache NiFi (incubating) +extensions are developed and help to explain the thought. Checking for Temporary Files in the Debug Logs with Findstr. Format must be either UNIX rwxrwxrwx with a - in place of denied permissions (e. How to Change File Dates. Monitoring Logs and Testing Result. If you want to assign the current time and date to a file without modifying the file, use the following syntax: copy /b Source+,,. Update Attribute. As we can see from the second entry, the attribute takes up 0x 70 bytes. Each map task would get one file name as input. /D:date - Copies files changed on or after the specified date. Introduction to record-oriented capabilities in Apache NiFi, including usage of a schema registry and integration with Apache Kafka. 1, which can be used to change folder, volume label and file entry dates, file sizes and attributes under Windows 3. , not even containing controls or U+0020 SPACE). NiFi tutorial. Set the source directory in one panel, and the target in the other. However, there are scenarios like storing incoming documents using barcodes or workflow and storing outgoing documents (from SAP generated PDF files) where ArchiveLink is not designed to store these file attributes (file name, creator name). The deceleration rate (default is 1). Attribute routing gives you more control over the URIs in your web application. Note that properties, like attributes (and profiles), are saved with images when write, if the image file format allows. Information about the purpose, arguments and returns of each function is detailed in the code header. 0 contains a small improvement allowing users to extend the Wait/Notify pattern to merging situations. with several Attributes, and these Attributes will change over the life of the FlowFile. Hi, I would appreciate hints on how I can match text heights and widths in microstation. If you're not familiar with the Wait/Notify concept in NiFi, I strongly recommend you to read this great post from Koji about the Wait/Notify pattern (it'll be much easier to understand this post). Extract attributes, text, and HTML from elements Problem. The amount of. We can confirm the data is now back to a single node (not necessarily the primary node): And now let's try the partitioning by attribute using the 'filename' attribute. fileattrib filename attribs users s sets the specified attributes for the specified users for the contents of the named folder. The current filename shows as Default; it will change in a DWG of a differing filename. The notes are in chronological order, as I needed and made them. Prerequisites. wma music file I want to update the metedata (album, title, etc) of a large number of. When a Hadoop cluster is available, it is recommended that the properties be updated to make full use of the cluster. The rate of change is constant. Attribute routing gives you more control over the URIs in your web application. Despite a lot. - I'm definitely up for discussing and contributing. When a Hadoop cluster is available, it is recommended that the properties be updated to make full use of the cluster. Their database driver types are described by the driver attribute, their character sets by the charset attribute. I have some files that are named like mmddyy_hhmm. By using above expression we are having filename value same as ListFTP filename and db_time attribute is added by using EvaluateJsonPath processor and we are changing the time stamp to number then comparing. For complete details of this update, see Knowledge Base Article KB976264. Tails the nifi-app and nifi-user log files, and then uses Site-to-Site to push out any changes to those logs to remote instance of NiFi (this template pushes them to localhost so that it is reusable). 3 filename (also called a short filename or SFN) is a filename convention used by old versions of DOS and versions of Microsoft Windows prior to Windows 95 and Windows NT 3. ASP is a Microsoft technology that usually runs on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (usually on Windows NT). Each Filename Attribute has its own details and parent. In Windows, filename extensions are associated with file types, and file type refers to the application used for opening it. Nifi wraps each file with a "flowfile", which contains metadata about the flow. You should now see the value of the field that you inserted change to the ProjectWise attribute value. Method 2: Change the Bookmark Name and Update Cross-references via VBA. NiFi: UpdateAttribute to change filename. Selectors- UI hierarchy, attributes, wildcards. As the name implies, attribute routing uses attributes to define routes. where username is your Windows login name and filename is the file name you choose to that cannot have a locale attribute. Apache NiFi in the Hadoop Ecosystem from attributes • FlowFile content becomes the cell value • Batch Size to specify maximum number of cells for a single. I have some files that are named like mmddyy_hhmm. In Windows, filename extensions are associated with file types, and file type refers to the application used for opening it. The FreeVBCode site provides free Visual Basic code, examples, snippets, and articles on a variety of other topics as well. (from 151010-74) Revision skipped. if the filename attribute contains. we are going to update the filename before putparquet processor so that everytime when file goes to putparquet processor will have same file name every time. Used with just the /S option ATTRIB will quickly search for a particular filename. If you're not familiar with the Wait/Notify concept in NiFi, I strongly recommend you to read this great post from Koji about the Wait/Notify pattern (it'll be much easier to understand this post). This feature removes the need to set a FlowFile expiration in the connection. I setup a ExecuteStreamCommand to file -i ${absolute. Add a new Process Group onto the NiFi canvas and name it StoreDataAsJSONToDisk. We had added some features beyond what was available in the original Flume flow. I want to update/set a flowfile attribute using regular expression on the filename. 4 https://www. In other words, if you had proficiency in those attributes, you would benefit a lo. Fields can be inserted in any kind of text (except tolerances), including text in table cells, attributes, and attribute definitions. I have created a standalone NiFi template (ExecuteScriptHelloWorldGroovy) that will generate a JSON file, then call the above script to update the filename attribute, then log that attribute: That's all for this introduction to ExecuteScript, check the NiFi docs for more information about configuring the ExecuteScript processor, and stay tuned. To exemplify how to use this activity, we have created an example that reads an. If you want to assign the current time and date to a file without modifying the file, use the following syntax: copy /b Source+,,. If you create a Form (either using the Create Application Wizard, create page of type Form - or Report and Form, or create region of type Form) or add an item to an existing form, any item whose source is a database column of type BLOB results in an item of type File Browse. add current date time, number series, datetime series, and use variables to increase or decrease the property value in number or datetime fields. Change attributes of files and folders. Categories: BigData. These attributes can be set using [+] or removed using [-] commands. The content attribute is the attribute as you set it from the content (the HTML code) and you can set it or get it via element. You can add to and change those variables as the flow goes on using the "UpdateAttribute" processor, and then route based on those attributes. The +,, is a special flag to copy telling it to simply update the date/time on the file: * Changing the time and date of a file. With attrib, you can change any of the add or remove any of the attributes below. gig" to the filename. falsified subject names using null-terminated strings or code injection attacks in certificates. FileSetDate Function: Set the last modified date and time of a file: SysUtils unit. How to Change File Dates. Attributes should not be made critical because it makes clients crash [citation needed] Unspecified length of attributes lead to product-specific limits; There are implementation errors with X. Because it’s dynamic, the distinguishedName will change when you move or rename the object. An A-Z Index of the Windows CMD command line. The notes are in chronological order, as I needed and made them. , not even containing controls or U+0020 SPACE). It seems quite a easy issue but I don't find any information about how can I do that. As time passes, T shows the offset from this reference time. rw-r--r--) or an octal number (e. The srcset attribute allows you to specify a list of image file URLs, along with size descriptions. Assuming a non-broken cryptographic hash, two files have the same hash if and only if they have the same contents. updateRow(row) # The loop will then move on to the next row/feature Update Data Extension. If the name denotes a valid class attribute that is a function object, a method object is created by packing (pointers to) the instance object and the function object just found together in an abstract object: this is the method object. NiFi System Administrator's Guide How to install and start Data Integration. Generally it is handled by domain administrator, but in one of my current project it was required to update the user photo from a sharepoint application and client did not want to use the user profile sync service. I use a GetHTTPS--> UpdateAttribute --> PutHDFS flow in order to read json files from an API every lets say 30 secs and put the files in HDFS. exe" executable. Since then these directions have been updated for Mac OS X 10. 10 Yosemite. You can modify many of the same properties that you can change in the Block Attribute Manager, but cannot change the order of the prompts, or how the definition update is applied. checkMessage() (nds) Check if a new message is arrived and return true if there is one and false otherwise. As we can see from the second entry, the attribute takes up 0x 70 bytes. if the filename attribute contains. If you are using GetFTP processor then after pulling files then processor going to add getftp. An update to the ValueInfo domain to include the new Attribute Assistant methods and Intersecting Count method. Getting the message "Cannot modify attachment level attribute" when attempting to change reference levels in the Level Manager How can you see level name and number in MicroStation v8 How do I remove the level “North Arrow” which appears in all my DGN files. This article describes update 3213650 for Microsoft Office 2016 that was released on August 1, 2017. Sets the permissions on the output file to the value of this attribute. Double click on "Syncfusion Data Integration Platform. source} //add remote source name to the. Use Powershell to Edit MP3 Tags Posted in Scripting , Tech Soup • 4 years ago • Written by Rick Gouin • 1 Comment Here is a bit of a change from the usual datacenter type posts. OAB Update schedule To change the OAB Update Schedule via the Exchange Management Console: Organization Configuration-> Mailbox-> tab Offline Address Book-> double click on the Offline Address Book for which you want to change the schedule-> tab General. Right click, Change color to Green. When a Hard Linked file is deleted, its filename is removed from the MFT Record. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. Upload files from a client to the web server using an HTML form Move, rename, copy, or delete files on the server Read, write, or append to text files on the server You use the action attribute to specify any of the following file actions: upload, move, rename, copy, delete, read, readBinary, write. Double click on "Syncfusion Data Integration Platform. gig; Taken together, this rule says: If the value of the filename attribute is fileOfInterest, and. Can you once. ADDUSERS Add or list users to/from a CSV file. jpg filename which I then extract the filename and query a table which returns the new filename. For a list of common I/O tasks, see Common I/O Tasks. Submission-description Element. When the last link is removed, then the file is really deleted. Fields can be inserted in any kind of text (except tolerances), including text in table cells, attributes, and attribute definitions. On starting data integration UI will be redirected to the below page with limited access. add current date time, number series, datetime series, and use variables to increase or decrease the property value in number or datetime fields. Overview of how Apache NiFi integrates with the Hadoop Ecosystem and can be used to move data between systems for enterprise dataflow management. There is a lot of buzz around at the moment about Apache NiFi at the moment, so I have had a look. dir c: s -h *. Plz help me Update a csv. Finally, open the NiFi UI and start the processors to begin the flow of the model back into the edge device. Get object by attribute value [duplicate] c# , reflection , custom-attributes , spring. It will select an element if the selector's string appears anywhere within the element's attribute value. I am confused at how this was ever marked as an answer. You should now see the value of the field that you inserted change to the ProjectWise attribute value. The most common attributes you'll see are filename, path and uuid. If you run in verbose mode, you will be prompted to say 'yes' for each shortcut you'd like to change. These steps are also available in individual release guides. Hit equals and if it returns 100, then the temporary attribute is set. Figure 10: MFT Entry Second Attribute. [attr~="word"]), which is more appropriate in many cases. Module configuration. Start and stop processors, monitor queues, query provenance data, and more. If the file had been copied by copy/paste to a CD-Writer then the read-only attribute gets turned on. Just open the shapefile, go to Properties>Attributes and add new columns. updateRow(row) # The loop will then move on to the next row/feature Update Data Extension. Requirement: Determine the target folder based on the dynamic values contained in the file name. Get object by attribute value [duplicate] c# , reflection , custom-attributes , spring. This warning message indicates that the log database file (database file name) does not exist on the Lotus Domino server. Ingest Salesforce Data Incrementally into Hive Using Apache Nifi Introduction Apache Nifi is an open source project that was built for data flow automation and management between different systems. Change to behavior of CAPTURE, when capturing all control characters: better handling of CR without LF. The most common attributes you'll see are filename, path and uuid. In the list of attributes, double-click the attribute you want to edit, or select the attribute and click Edit. change filename Software - Free Download change filename - Top 4 Download - Top4Download. The UpdateAttibute processor is used to manipulate NIFI attributes. Therefore, these functions will not change code for images which have already been added to a post. path: The name of a directory that can be used to store the data to a local or remote file system. bat" and select: Run as Administrator (see below) Ok the UAC prompt and the batch file will run. 0 or later, by using QueryRecord processor. It is not necessary to do this to use the archive streams. Don't change the model classes that are created. 1 and received the same results. From the KB source: If you click Apply changes to this folder only, the Read-only attribute is changed for all the files in the folder. Hidden and System attributes take priority. Then ran the "attsync" command, selected one of the blocks and all the visible attributes disappeared. Hello @Arsalan Siddiqi. This stands for Universally Unique Identifier, which is a unique identity of a flowfile generated by NiFi. https://www. x), 'Attributes' is called 'Fields'. Then this file passed as a parameter to FileInfo which provide the entire properties related to file. The eCTD Backbone Files Specification f or Module 1. Original Title: Can't change file properties. Every image must have an alt attribute. 0 or later, by using QueryRecord processor. processors; /* * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more * contributor license agreements. All the records successfully go through, however I cannot find a place in PutFile block (connected direclty to ConvertCSVtoAVRO) where I can change the filename. If the name denotes a valid class attribute that is a function object, a method object is created by packing (pointers to) the instance object and the function object just found together in an abstract object: this is the method object. type Attribute', which causes the processor to get the statement type from a flow file attribute. This video shows you how to edit and create fields in attribute tables and create Domains in ArcMap. This is the most user friendly way to view or adjust file permissions in Mac OS X, it works with anything found in the Finder file system, be it a file, binary, application, or a folder. Visit for free, full and secured software's. It creates a new filename by using the original filename plus the fragment number from the SplitText processor and adds a string at the end. This a very simple guide on how to change a file’s “date modified” and “date created” attributes on Mac OS X I wrote back in May 2009. ListenESP Processor. File attributes are settings associated with computer files that grant or deny certain rights to how a user or the operating system can access that file. I'm trying to update all of my field/column names to change them into their non-joined attribute table names, as when you join attribute tables on QGIS the names are altered into something undesirable (see images below) The issue that I'm having is that the field names will not update despite my code running and no errors being brought up. This is a problem as the folders will have new data added to them on an ongoing basis but, as both modified and created dates change to the time the new file is added, it causes issues when finding specific nested folders via creation date. It seems quite a easy issue but I don't find any information about how can I do that. This method is especially useful when uploading to memory, as this is the only way to save a memory file to disk. The root of all Liquibase changes is the databaseChangeLog file. Following the separator, the attribute change type must be specified and the required attributes must be given. They are overwritten when you update your EDMX. I may be way off the mark here, but how I understand it is that you want to update titleblocks within old drawings so that the attribute named "DRAWINGNAME" contains the filename of the drawing. CruiseControl Configuration Reference. If the file to tail is periodically “rolled over”, as is generally the case with log files, an optional Rolling Filename Pattern can be used to retrieve data from files that have rolled over, even if the rollover occurred while NiFi was not running (provided that the data still exists upon restart of NiFi). If the file to tail is periodically "rolled over", as is generally the case with log files, an optional Rolling Filename Pattern can be used to retrieve data from files that have rolled over, even if the rollover occurred while NiFi was not running (provided that the data still exists upon restart of NiFi). Checking for Temporary Files in the Debug Logs with Findstr. This video shows you how to edit and create fields in attribute tables and create Domains in ArcMap. In its most basic form, the Expression can consist of just an attribute name. When the last link is removed, then the file is really deleted. The FlowFiles' attribute will be used to create a directory in the TAR file if the property is set to true; otherwise, all FlowFiles will be added at the root of the TAR file. This time, the attrib command is used to remove multiple file attributes from the bcd file, an important file that must be working for Windows to start. Current uses: I am a committer and PMC member for the Apache NiFi, MiNiFi, and NiFi Registry projects and help numerous users deploy these tools to collect data from an incredibly diverse array of endpoints, aggregate, prioritize, filter, transform, and secure this data, and generate actionable insight from it. Here are various functions which may be used to manipulate the values of block attributes using both Vanilla & Visual LISP. If the processor would be capable of handling incoming flowfiles, we could trigger it for each server addres found in the list. The most common attributes of an Apache NiFi FlowFile are − UUID. I think it's possible with NiFi 1. I use a GetHTTPS--> UpdateAttribute --> PutHDFS flow in order to read json files from an API every lets say 30 secs and put the files in HDFS. Log database file (database file name) does not exist on Domino Server. but if you want to change the three font elements' size attribute to "12pt", it would be too easy to miss one -- especially if the template rules weren't next to each other in the stylesheet. I want to update/set a flowfile attribute using regular expression on the filename. This is the most user friendly way to view or adjust file permissions in Mac OS X, it works with anything found in the Finder file system, be it a file, binary, application, or a folder. Hidden and System attributes take priority. falsified subject names using null-terminated strings or code injection attacks in certificates. NET MVC matches a URI to an action. The data can then be viewed in the files environment attribute properties page and in ProjectWise views. This document describes the XML elements and attributes for a valid configuration file. Update Attribute. Visit each division homepage for a list of product communities under each. 5 allows remote attackers to change field focus and copy keystrokes via the "for" attribute in a label, which bypasses the. filename ${filename}_${getftp. Let's change the Load Balance strategy to Round Robin. Is there a nifi expression language function that support that. For one reason or another, sometimes you might just want to change the attributes, and since Windows does not offer an easy way to do so, I wrote a small easy-to-use program to change the date of a file. In the output of the PutFile processor all files have an extra space at the end behing the ". How to Change File Permissions on Mac. The string in quotes is the value of the attribute within the CoreAttributes enum. This is necessary when adding data to a database, or when submitting sensitive information, such as passwords. When you create a new document, the "Title" field in File > Properties > Description > Title is auto-filled with the template name. Information about the purpose, arguments and returns of each function is detailed in the code header. You can't update a file name using the 'Set field in current item'. Therefore this enhancement is only available in manual storing scenarios and display through GOS Attachment list service. To see the file attributes, you have to right-click on the file or folder and select Properties. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. An alt attribute's value should clearly and concisely describe the image's content. Create your first Microsoft Office add-in with the Excel JavaScript APIs Objective Scenario Virtual Machines. This app provides two sets of tools that may be used together or standalone: a render_field template tag for customizing form fields by using an HTML-like syntax. wma music file I want to update the metedata (album, title, etc) of a large number of. canto_chapter_index name. avi files and when I list them as my movie library, rather than the name of the file displaying, wmc displays the file name listed in the "Details" section of the file propery. Used with just the /S option ATTRIB will quickly search for a particular filename. - To get the attribute value of an element with jQuery, it is used attr() function. While you can change text color using the tag in HTML, this method is no longer supported in HTML5. The earlier style of routing, called convention-based routing, is still fully supported. It is assumed that you are somewhat comfortable with Docker, and currently this tutorial also assumes that you are using some sort of Unix/Linux, and are comfortable with the command line. Summary: Learn how to use the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Set-ItemProperty to work with file attributes. I am trying to create a simple script that will extract to a variable from a Block Attribute value. html[NiFi Overview] and the link:user-guide. In this example, we’ll take a CSV file and publish it to Kafka. download: Directs the browser to download the linked resource rather than opening it. Just open the shapefile, go to Properties>Attributes and add new columns. com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/cropped. Orchestration of services is a pivotal part of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Easiest to setup when using NiFi, but as the name says, it's only for Netflow v5; Proposed Solution. In my last post, I introduced the Apache NiFi ExecuteScript processor, including some basic features and a very simple use case that just updated a flow file attribute. Plz help me Update a csv. The packaging is as a JAR. I read somewhere that in D&D 5e, the Saving Throw distribution for spells was biased towards DEX, CON and WIS. Is there a nifi expression language function that support that. ext is your file's name). I am moving some Apache Flume flows over to Apache NiFi, this is the first one I am doing. Use Powershell to Edit MP3 Tags Posted in Scripting , Tech Soup • 4 years ago • Written by Rick Gouin • 1 Comment Here is a bit of a change from the usual datacenter type posts. The incoming jpg file has a GUID. In this article, I am going to share different way to change image source attribute using jQuery with different examples. 'Fetch the specific Nodes by Attribute value. In my previous posts, I provided an introduction to Apache NiFi (incubating), and I offered tips on how to do some simple things in the User Interface. It integrates with Windows Shell, letting you change the file created, modified and accessed date and timestamps from File Properties window. Yes we can do your case using NiFi Processors without using any external scripts. Changing the "Date Modified" field of a file I was able to change file attributes on ppt, doc, and xls files using Attribute Changer, but not all of the time. Visit each division homepage for a list of product communities under each. When the last link is removed, then the file is really deleted. If a file has both the Hidden and System attributes set, you can clear both attributes only with a single ATTRIB command. mysql4-install-0. I have 1 minor issue though. Be sure your interface is set correctly to allow you to see the attributes for the environment. The Attribute Bulk update utility tool provides the ability to update ProjectWise attributes with title block tag data from multiple design files. After making changes to the file, restart data integration service in order for the changes to take effect. I also have an attribute in the title block for drawing number and the filename has the drawing number (ex: G-649-03 M-101. In other words, if you had proficiency in those attributes, you would benefit a lo. element is an optional field that allows up to 128 characters. I'm trying to update all of my field/column names to change them into their non-joined attribute table names, as when you join attribute tables on QGIS the names are altered into something undesirable (see images below) The issue that I'm having is that the field names will not update despite my code running and no errors being brought up. I am grabbing log files from a directory and pushing over to HDFS. How to Change Image Attributes in WordPress Posts. Add new property in update attribute. Install this update to resolve issues with non-compatible applications for Windows 7. Look at your windows Task Manager to see if you have more than one instance of Excel, see if Help is working. If the value is changeable, a text field appears allowing you to enter data. mp3" etc I want the software to go through them and change the Title to. So you can put your logic in a "buddy class" that does not get overwritten. It's easy to extend the attribute list with for example number of records and other things. Update Attribute. Open PutFile Configure Properties Tab. You can't update a file name using the 'Set field in current item'. /D:date - Copies files changed on or after the specified date. with several Attributes, and these Attributes will change over the life of the FlowFile. The +,, is a special flag to copy telling it to simply update the date/time on the file: * Changing the time and date of a file. Creating a Limited Failure Loop in NiFi. Also you can replace or remove the part of file name or any string meta tag. Files with the O attribute may be skipped entirely because the software may assume they are stored elsewhere. This document will show how to setup and use the attribute bulk update tool. Each Filename Attribute has its own details and parent. You may not know it but you have the availability to define and play with counters in NiFi. Attributes should not be made critical because it makes clients crash [citation needed] Unspecified length of attributes lead to product-specific limits; There are implementation errors with X. This article describes update 4484105 for Microsoft Word 2016 that was released on October 1, 2019. Ingest Salesforce Data Incrementally into Hive Using Apache Nifi Introduction Apache Nifi is an open source project that was built for data flow automation and management between different systems. Please check that all links work before sending the file for publication. I am trying to create a simple script that will extract to a variable from a Block Attribute value. When this program is brought into storage, it does not cause the environment to be marked dirty. The enabledPlugin attribute must return the Plugin object that represents the plugin that explicitly supported the MIME type that this MimeType object represents when this object was last created or updated by PluginArray. We have recently unarchived quite a lot of file data but some files have kept the OFFLINE attribute. Be aware that the update in the Microsoft Download Center applies to the Microsoft Installer (. WinExt Batch Operator Utilities - File & Disk Management. While the contents and attributes of a FlowFile can change, the FlowFile object is immutable. To change a property of an image already in memory, you need to use -set. For complete details of this update, see Knowledge Base Article KB976264. If you want to assign the current time and date to a file without modifying the file, use the following syntax: copy /b Source+,,. See CBS only: If you are connected to the Internet, you should update DTAG first by > clicking on the "Update DTAG" icon. In the Edit Attribute dialog box, make changes on the following tabs and click OK: Attribute tab.